Academic Bibliography on African Place Naming


Unesco. 1984. Ethnonymes et toponymes africains, Paris : PUF, 209 p.

Ben Arrous, M. and L. Bigon 2022,  “What Africa Might Contribute to Critical Toponymy”. in The Politics of Place Naming: Naming the World. F. Giraut and M. Houssay-Holzschuch (eds.). Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons: 217-260.

Ben Arrous M. & Bigon L. 2022 (à paraître). “Ce que l’Afrique pourrait apporter à la toponymie critique” in Nommer le Monde : La dénomination des lieux, F. Giraut & M. Houssay-Holzschuch (eds.), Londres : ISTE Editions

Bigon, L. 2016. Place Names in Africa. Colonial Urban Legacies, Entangled Histories. Cham: Springer, 229 p.

Bigon, L. & Ben Arrous M. 2021. Street-Naming Cultures in Africa and Israel: Power Strategies and Place-Making Practices, Routledge, 236 p.

Batoma, A. 2006. African ethnonyms and toponyms: An annotated bibliographyElectronic Journal of Africana Bibliography10(1), 1.

Kirchherr, E. C. 1987. Place names of Africa, 1935-1986 : a political gazetteer. Metuchen  & London: The Scarecrow Press.

Ndlovu, S. 2021. Naming and Othering in Africa: Imagining Supremacy and Inferiority through Language. London: Routledge, 216 p.


Bibliography on place naming and renaming in Africa

Etymological monographs on name signification, origin and alteration are excluded here, if not dedicated to the social and political process of naming. Ancient monographs and dictionaries and gazetteers are considered as primary sources.

Four key thematic issues are highlighted here and indicated  for each reference (at the end in bracket)

  • Theme 1 Cartography, geographical information and neotoponymy
  • Theme 2 Urban odonomy, neighborhoods names, addressing policy
  • Theme 3 Postcolonial and transnational toponymy and the making of linguistic landscape
  • Theme 4 Colonial and vernacular territorialities and toponymies, spatial appropriation, land claim
  • 5 Primary sources (Gazetteers ; Dictionaries ; Monographs on the etymology and phonology of names…)

Countries and case studie’s places are indicated in bracket and written in the language used by the author

As of February 10, 2022, the distribution of 332 references by country is as follows :

al-Jazā’ir (Algérie) 16 ; al-Maġrib (Maroc) 9 ; Angola 6 ; Bénin 7 ; Botswana 2 ; Burkina Faso 7 ; Burundi 1 ; Cameroun (Cameroon) 12 ; Cape Verde 2 ; Centrafrique 1 ; Congo 3 ; Congo (République Démocratique de) 5 ; Côte-d’Ivoire 5 ; Djibouti 2 ; Egypt 3 ; Ertra (Iritriya – Eritrea) 2  ; España 1 ; Eswatini 1 ; Gabon 4 ; Gambia 1 ; Ghana 12 ; Guinea-Bissau 1 ; Guinea Ecuatorial 4 ; Guinée 2 ; Kenya 21 ; Lesotho 1 ; Lībiyā (Libya ; Libye) 2 ; Madagasikara (Madagascar) 4 ; Mali 5 ; Mauritius 1 ; Moçambique 3 ; Muritaniya (Mauritanie) 2 ; Namibia 4 ; Niger 8 ; Nigeria 18 ; Réunion (océan Indien ; France) 1 ; Rwanda 2 ; As-Ṣaḥrā’ al-Ġarbiyah (Sahara occidental) 3 ; São Tomé e Príncipe 1; Sénégal 11 ; Seychelles 1 ; Sierra Leone  1 ; Soomaaliya (Somalia) 3 ; South Africa 69 ; Sudan 2 ; Tanzania 7 ; Tchad 1; Togo 5 ; Tunus (Tunisie) 1 ; Uganda 1 ; YeItyopya (Ethiopia ; Ethiopie) 5 ; Zambia 6 ; Zimbabwe 46

Bibliometric ranking

  • 69 : South Africa
  • 46 : Zimbabwe
  • 21 : Kenya
  • 18 : Nigeria
  • 14 : al-Jazā’ir (Algérie) ;
  • 13 : Cameroun (Cameroon)
  • 12 : Ghana
  • 11 : Sénégal
  • 9 : al-Maġrib (Maroc)
  • 8 : Niger ;
  • 7 : Bénin ; Burkina Faso ; Tanzania
  • 6 : Angola; Zambia
  • 5 : Congo (République Démocratique de) ; Côte-d’Ivoire ; Mali ; Togo ; YeItyopya (Ethiopia ; Ethiopie)
  • 4 : Gabon ; Guinea Ecuatorial ; Madagasikara (Madagascar); Namibia ;
  • 3 : As-Ṣaḥrā’ al-Ġarbiyah (Sahara occidental) ; Congo ; Egypt (umhuriyat) ; Ertra (Iritriya – Eritrea) ; Moçambique; Soomaaliya (Somalia)
  • 2 : Botswana ; Cape Verde ; Djibouti ; Guinée ; Muritaniya (Mauritanie) ; Rwanda ; Sudan
  • 1 : Burundi ; Centrafrique ; Ertra (Érythrée) ; España ; Eswatini ; Gambia ; Guinea-Bissau ; Lesotho ; Madagasikara (Madagascar) ; Mauritius  ; São Tomé e Príncipe ; Seychelles ; Sierra Leone ; Tchad ; Tunus (Tunisie) ; Uganda


Adebanwi, W. (2012). “Global Naming and shaming: Toponymic (inter) National relations on Lagos and New York streets”. African Affairs 111, 640-661.  (3 ; 2) (Nigeria ; Lagos)

Ahmouda, A. & H. H. Hochmair (2017). “Using Volunteered Geographic Information to measure name changes of artificial geographical features as a result of political changes: a Libya case study”. GeoJournal, 1-19. (1) (Libya)

Aixelà-Cabré, Y., Ed. (2022). Spain’s African Colonial Legacies. Morocco and Equatorial Guinea Compared, Leiden: Brill. (3 ; 4) (Equatorial Guinea; Morocco; Bata; Al-Hoceima)

Alasli, M. & G. Gercsák (2021). “Dual naming as a mechanism to recognize multiple identities; Casablanca or Ad-Dār al-BayḍāAdvances in Cartography and GIScience of the ICA 3(1): 5. (3) (Morocco ; Casablanca ; Ad-Dār al-Bayḍā)

Aleff, M. (2017). “German urbanonyms in German South West Africa.”, Journal of Namibian Studies : History Politics Culture 22: 7-24. (4) (Deutsch-Südwestafrika ; Windhoek ; Swakopmund)

Alexandre, P. (1983). “Sur quelques problèmes pratiques d’onomastique africaine : toponymie, anthroponymie, ethnonymie.” Cahiers d’Études africaines 23(1-2): 175-188. (1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4) (Afrique)

Amougou Mbarga, A. B. (2013) “À travers les dénominations des rues et des quartiers de la ville de Douala : La quotidienneté comme univers de sens”. Anthropologie et Sociétés 37(1), 195-212. (2) (Cameroun ; Douala)

Anignikin, S. C. (2001). “Histoire des populations mahi. Histoire des populations mahi. À propos de la controverse sur l’ethnonyme et le toponyme « Mahi »Cahiers d’études africaines(162): 243-266. (4) (Bénin ; Mahi)

Anindo, C. (2016). A morphosemantic study of toponyms: Lulogooli place names. Ma, University of Nairobi. (5) (Kenya ; Lulogooli)

Ansah, P. B. and P. B. Mireku-Gyimah (2021). “A Morphosyntactic and Semantic Analysis of Placenames in Kwahu in the Eastern Region of Ghana.” European Journal of Applied Linguistics Studies 3(2): 37-59. (4) (Ghana ; Kwahu)

Asamoah, L. and A. Akuamah (2021). “Asante Habitation Names: A Morphological Analysis.” International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies 9(3): 65-73. (4; 5) (Ghana ; Asante)

Atoui, B. (2017) Le choix des noms de lieux en Afrique n’est pas anodin, Podcast Deutsche Welle. (3 ; 4) (Africa)

Atoui, B. (1998) Toponymie et espace en Algérie. Alger : Ed. Institut National de Cartographie, 1998. (2 ; 4) (Algeria)

Amenyedzi, D. (2015). The Onomastics of Principal Anlo-Town Names. Master of Philosophy, University of Education. (4; 5) (Ghana ; Anlo)

Azzedine, A. (2017) “Voyage dans la toponymie mascarienne : de la période turque à la période postcoloniale”. متون 9, 39-54.(Algérie ; Mascara)

Bala, M. I. (2015). The Cultural Landscape Values of a Nupe Community in Nigeria (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia). (4) (Nigeria)

Balduino, A. M., G. A. de Araujo and A. L. Agostinho (2021). “São Tomé and Príncipe’s toponymy”. Acta Scientiarum. Language and Culture, 43(2). (3) (São Tome and Príncipe)

Bass, O. & J. Houghton (2018) “Street Names and Statues: the Identity Politics of Naming and Public Art in Contemporary Durban”. Urban Forum 29, 413–427. (3) (South Africa ; Durban)

Bassett T.J. (1998). “Indigenous Mapmaking in Intertropical Africa” in  D. Woodward & G. M. Lewis (eds), The History of Cartography Volume Two, Book Three: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 24-48. (4) (Africa)

Batoma, A. (2006). African ethnonyms and toponyms: An annotated bibliographyElectronic Journal of Africana Bibliography 10(1), 1. (Africa)

Baumanova, M. and R. Tramutoli (2022). ““What’s in a name?” Swahili toponymy of past towns on the East African coastKervan: International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies 26(1). (Swahili ; Eastern Africa Coast ; Kenya ; Tanzania) (4)

Beeckmans, L. (2016). “A Toponymy of Segregation: The ‘Neutral Zones’ of Dakar, Dar es Salaam and Kinshasa” in Place Names in Africa. L. Bigon (ed.). Cham, Springer: 105-121. (2) (Sénégal ; Tanzania ; DR Congo ; Dakar ; Dar es Salam ; Kinshasa)

Ben Arrous, M. (2020). Sénégal: Les populations n’utilisent pas les noms coloniaux des rues. Podcast RFI. (1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4) (Afrique ; Sénégal)

Ben Arrous, M. (2016). “Sarah’s Globe and the (Un-)naming of Mobile Space.” in Place Names in Africa. L. Bigon (ed.). Cham, Springer: 27-36. (1 ; 4) (Africa)

Bertrand, M. (2001). “Dynamiques urbaines, composition toponymique : le cas de Bamako (Mali)”. In Nommer les nouveaux territoires urbains (édition electronique), ed. H. Rivière d’Arc, 32. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme – Editions de l’Unesco – Open Editions. (2) (Mali ; Bamako)

Berry, J. 1958. The Place-Names of Ghana. London: School of Oriental and African Languages. (5) (Ghana)

Bigon, L. (2020). “Towards Creating a Global Urban Toponymy—A Comment.Urban Science 4(4). (2 ; 3). (Africa)

Bigon, L. (2016). Place Names in Africa. Colonial Urban Legacies, Entangled Histories. Cham: Springer, 229 p. (2 ; 3 ; 4) (Africa)

Bigon, L. (2011). “The Former Names of Lagos (Nigeria) in Historical Perspective.” Names 59(4): 229-240. (3 ; 4) (Nigeria ; Lagos)

Bigon, L. (2008). “Names, norms and forms: French and indigenous toponyms in early colonial Dakar, Senegal”. Planning Perspectives 23, 479 – 501. (2 ; 3) (Senegal ; Dakar)

Bigon, L. and M. Ben Arrous (2021). Street-Naming Cultures in Africa and Israel: Power Strategies and Place-Making Practices, Routledge, 236 p. (2 ; 3) (Africa)

Bigon, L. and M. Ben Arrous (2019). “Les noms de rues à Dakar. Héritages (pré-) coloniaux et temps présent.” Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire UCAD, Series B 59(1-2): 53-79. (2) (Sénégal ; Dakar)

Bigon, L. & M. Ben Arrous (2018) “A Tale of Two Brazzas: Intertwining (Post-)Colonial Namescapes”. Names, 1-14. (4) (Congo ; Brazzaville)

Bigon, L. and E. Langenthal (2022) “Tracing Trade and Settlement Infrastructures in the Judaic Material Culture of Tafilalt, Southeastern Morocco.” Heritage 5, 3785-3818 DOI: 10.3390/heritage5040196. (4 ; 5 ) (Maroc ; Tafilalt ; Rissani ; South Eastern Jewri)

Bigon, L. and R. Home (2016). “Transnational Aspects in the History of Lagos: Place Names and Built Forms”. in Place Names in Africa. L. Bigon (ed.). Cham, Springer: 59-78. (3 ; 4) (Nigeria)

Bigon, L. & A. J. Njoh (2013). “The Toponymic Inscription Problematic in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa: From Colonial to Postcolonial Times”. Journal of Asian and African Studies. (3) (Africa)

Bigon, L. and D. Zuvalinyenga (2020). “Urban Pulse – Gendered urban toponyms in the global South: a time for de-colonization?Urban Geography: 1-14. (2 ; 3) (Africa)

Binet, J. (1976) “Urbanisme et langage dans la ville africaine”. Diogène, 90-113. (2) (Sub Saharan Africa)

Bishi, G., J. Mujere and Z. Mamvura (2022). “Renaming Enkeldoorn: Whiteness, place, and the politics of belonging in Southern Rhodesia.Journal of Historical Geography 77: 55-64. (Zimbabwe ; Enkeldoorn) (3 ;4)

Borok, A. M. & P.-K. Tubi (2017) “Toponyms in the Jos Plateau and the impact on intergroup relations: an ethno-historical perspective”. RJHIS (Romanian Journal of History and International Sciences), 4, 181-208. (4) (Nigeria ; Jos Plateau)

Botha, C. G. (1926). Place names in the Cape Province. Cape Town, Juta and Company Ltd. (5) (South Africa ; Cape Province)

Boualili, A. (2013). “Le (micro)toponyme: une archéologie du savoir”. (4) (Algérie ; Kabylie)

Bouhadjar, S. (2012). “Les Toponymes Marqueurs Identitaires et Symbole de Résistance : Cas du Toponyme HennayaELWAHAT Journal for Research and Studies 2(1): 379-382.

Bouhadjar, S. (2016). Approche Sociolinguistique des Noms des Lieux en Algérie Cas de la toponymie de Boussemghoun, PhD, Université Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen. (3) (Algérie ; Boussemghoun)

Boujrouf, S. & E. M. Hassani (2008). “Toponymie et recomposition territoriale au Maroc : Figures, sens et logiques”. L’Espace politique, 40-52. (4) (Maroc)

Boyer F., (2014) “« Faire fada » à Niamey (Niger) : un espace de transgression silencieuse ?”. Carnets de géographes [En ligne], 7 |(4) (Niger ; Niamey)

Boyer, F. (2017) “Les graffitis: une inscription spatiale et temporelle de la jeunesse dans l’espace public.” Urbanités 9. (4) (Niger; Niamey)

Braun, L. F. (2016). “Colonialism and Toponymy in the Kei Valley, South Africa, c.1850–1900.Forum IFL 30: 121-132. (3 ; 4) (South Africa ; Kei Valley)

Brown, W. T. (1973 (2016)). “Bagamoyo: Inquiry into an East African Place Name” in Place Names in Africa.” in L. Bigon (ed.). Cham, Springer: 37-44. (4) (Tanzania ; Bagamoyo)

Bühnen, S. (1992). “Place Names as an Historical Source: An Introduction with Examples from Southern Senegambia and Germany.History in Africa 19: 45-101. (4) (Senegal ; Gambia)

Cessou S., 2019, Ce que signifient les noms des pays d’Afrique, Radio France Internationale. (3 ; 4) (Africa)

Chami, A. (2022). “Toponymes Littoraux Espagnols entre Emprunts Linguistiques et Marqueurs Identitaires Culturels: Le Littoral Ouest Algérien comme Cas d’EtudeELWAHAT Journal for Research and Studies 15(2): 1614-1634. (4) (Algérie ; Littoral Ouest Algérien)

Chiré, A. S. (2021). “Le rôle de la toponymie dans la territorialisation des lieux : le cas de Djibouti-ville”. in Système nominal et acte de nommer dans des langues couchitiques de la Corne de l’Afrique, Lacito-Publications, 107-115. (2) (Djibouti)

Choplin, A. and M. Lozivit (2019). “Mettre un quartier sur la carte: Cartographie participative et innovation numérique à Cotonou (Bénin)”. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography DOI: 10.4000/cybergeo.31152 . (1) (Bénin ; Ladji (Cotonou))

Coetzee, S., Cooper, A.K. & Ditsela J. (2011). “Towards good principles for the design of a national addressing scheme“. 25th International Cartographic Conference (ICC 2011). (1 ; 2) (South Africa)

Cornevin R. (1984). “The Standardization of the Spelling of African Names: toponyms and ethnonyms” . In African Ethnonyms and Toponyms, Paris: UNESCO, pp.68-79. (3 ; 5) (Africa)

Cumbe C., (2016). “Formal and Informal Toponymic Inscriptions in Maputo: Towards Socio-Linguistics and Anthropology of Street Naming”. In Place Names in Africa, Bigon L. (ed.), Cham: Springer International Publishing, 195-205. (2 ; 3) (Mozambic ; Maputo)

da Costa, D. F. (2022). “The exclusion of national liberation war heroes of the opposition parties in the memorial landscape: an analysis of the Angolan toponymic law.” GeoJournal. (3) (Angola)

da Costa, D. F. and H. F. Daniel (2022). “Toponymic motivations: The act of naming popular districts in the Angolan peripherySciELO Preprints. (3) (Angola)

Dadoua Hadria, N. & B. Boumedini (2015). “L’algérianisation du territoire Algérie après l’indépendance. Cas des noms des quartiers à Oran.” in Challenges in synchronic toponymy/Défis de la toponymie synchronique: Structure, Context and Use/Structures, contextes et usages. J. Löfström and B. Schnabel-Le Corre (eds.). Tübingen, Narr Francke Attempto Verlag: 121-128.

Darrigol, A. (2016). “Politique linguistique et toponymie en Guinée espagnole”, Diversité et identité culturelle en Europe (DICE) 13/1, 137-152. (3) (Guinée équatoriale)

Darrigol, A. (2017). “Produire et contrôler les identités linguistiques : les toponymes en Guinée équatoriale coloniale et indépendante” in Construction/déconstruction des identités linguistiques, Paris, Connaissances et Savoirs, 221-232. (3) (Guinée équatoriale)

d’Almeida-Topor, H. (2016 (1996)). “The Colonial Toponymic Model in the Capital Cities of French West Africa”. in Place Names in Africa. L. Bigon (ed.). Cham, Springer: 93-103. (2) (Former French West Africa ; Dakar; Abidjan ; Bamako ; Porto-Novo ; Cotonou; Conakry ; Bobo-Dioulasso ; Lomé ; Ouagadougou)

d’Almeida-Topor, H. (1996). “Le modèle toponymique colonial dans les capitales de l’Ouest africain francophone”. In La Ville européenne outre mers : un modèle conquérant ?, eds. C. Coquery-Vidrovitch & O. Goerg, 235-243. Paris: l’Harmattan. (2) (Afrique de l’Ouest francophone ; Dakar ; Abidjan ; Bamako ; Porto-Novo ; Cotonou; Conakry ; Bobo-Dioulasso ; Lomé ; Ouagadougou)

de Oliveira, P., B. Adje and E. Pélerin (2018). Les adresses et la modernisation des pratiques urbaines au Bénin. Document de capitalisation. Groupe Huit, Ministère du Cadre de Vie et du Développement Durable du Bénin: Cotonou, 59 p. (2) (Bénin ; Comé ; Cotonou ; Porto Novo)

de Villiers, A. (1966). “Certain Aspects of Pioneer Toponymy in South Africa in the 19the Century” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Onomastic Sciences. D. P. Blok (ed.). Amsterdam, De Gruyter Mouton: 568-574. (3 ; 5) (South Africa)

de Villiers, I. & R. Kesselring (2014) “What’s in a name? Street Names and the Fine Line between Silencing and Predicating History”. TSANTSA 19, 80-93. (3 ; 2) (South Africa)

Diki-Kidiri, M. (1983). “Réflexions sur la graphématique.Cahiers d’Études africaines(89-90): 169-174. (1; 2 ; 3 ; 4) (Africa)

Dlamini, S., S. G. Tesfamichael and T. Mokhele (2021). “A review of place identity studies in post-apartheid South Africa.South African Journal of Psychology 51(1): 121-133.

Donko, K. and M. Doenvenspeck (2018). “Néo-toponymes dans les zones de colonisation agricole du centre-Bénin : enjeux spatio-politiquesAnnales de la FASHS 1: 4-25. (4) (Benin)

Dorier-Apprill, E. & C. Van den Avenne (2002). “Usages toponymiques et pratiques de l’espace urbain à Mopti (Mali) – La toponymie entre linguistique et géographie”. Marges linguistiques, 152-158. (2) (Mali ; Mopti)

Drury, M. (2022). “Naming the city. Saharan urbanization and disaggregated sovereignty.” L’Ouest Saharien 17(2): 39-65. (2 ; 3 ; 4) (As-Ṣaḥrā’ al-Ġarbiyah/Sahara Occidental ; Laâyoune/El Aaiún)

Dube, L. (2018). “Naming and renaming of the streets and avenues of Bulawayo: A statement to the vanquished by the victors?“. Nomina Africana 32(2): 47-55. (2) (Zimbabwe ; Bulawayo)

Duminy, J. (2014). “Street renaming, symbolic capital, and resistance in Durban, South Africa”. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 32, 310-328. (2 ; 4) (South Africa ; Durban)

Egeler, M. and C. Lentz (2022). “Things that Place Names Do.” Anthropos 117(2): 453-466. (2 ;3 ;4) (Ghana ; Black Volta)

Ehrenreich-Risner, V. (2020). “Reading Geographical Names as Text: Refiguring the “Living Archive” in Postcolonial South Africa.” The American Archivist 83(1): 21-56. (3) (South Africa)

Ekanjume-Ilongo, B. (2018). “Motivation for the naming of student residences at the National University of Lesotho.” Nomina Africana: Journal of African Onomastics 32(1): 1-10. (4) (Lesotho ; National University of Lesotho (NUL))

El Khamissy, R. (2015). “La Révolution égyptienne a modifié Tahrir.” in Challenges in synchronic toponymy/Défis de la toponymie synchronique: Structure, Context and Use/Structures, contextes et usages. J. Löfström and B. Schnabel-Le Corre (eds.), Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto Verlag, 129-138. (Egypt ; Tahrir)

Erlank, N. (2017). “From Main Reef to Albertina Sisulu Road. The Signposted Heroine and the Politics of Memory.” The Public Historian 39(2): 31-50. (3) (South Africa)

Esho, L. (2011). “How the Maasai labelled most of Kenya”. The Standard. Nairobi. (4 ;5) (Kenya ; Maasai)

Farvacque-Vitkovic, C., et al. (2005). Adressage et gestion des villes. Washington, World Bank. (2) (Africa)

Farvacque-Vitkovic, C., et al. (2005). Street addressing and the management of cities. Washington, World Bank. (2) (Africa)

Fernández García, A. (2017). “Paysage urbain et nationalisme dans les enclaves espagnoles de Ceuta et Melilla.L’Âge d’or [En ligne](10): 22. (3 ; 4) (Espagne ; Ceuta ; Melilla)

Flutre, L.-F. (1957). Pour une étude de la toponymie de l’A.O.F., Dakar, Université de Dakar, 188 p. (4 ; 5) (Afrique Occidentale Française)

Forrest, C. (2018). “What’s in a name? A feminist reflection on street name changes in Durban.” Agenda 32(2): 53-61. (2 ; 3 ; 4) (South Africa ; Durban)

Frimpong, L. K., M. Abunyewah, S. A. Okyere and S. Kofi Diko (2022) “Ghana digitised its address system: its failure offers lessons to other African countries creating smart cities.The Conversation, 22/11/2022 (1) (Ghana; Accra)

Garakcheme, G. (2011). “Références violentes et toponymie des quartiers à Tokombéré”. Sociétés et jeunesses en difficulté 11.  (2 ; 4) (Cameroun ; Tokombéré)

Gascon, A. (2008). “Chacun devrait porter le nom que l’homme lui aurait donné»: la politique des noms en Éthiopie”. L’Espace géographique 37, 117-130.  (4) (Ethiopia)

Geelan, P. J. M. (1967). “Habits of names and naming: a questionnaire on African place-names.” African language review(6): 167-168. (1 ; 5) (Afrique)

Gervais-Lambony, P. (1994). De Lomé à Harare. Le fait citadin. Paris, Johannesbourg, Karthala-Ifra. (3; 4) (Togo ; Zimbabwe ; Lomé ; Harare)

Giraut, F., S. Guyot & M. Houssay-Holzschuch (2008). “Enjeux de mots: les changements toponymiques sud-africains”L’Espace géographique 37, 131-150. (2 ; 4) (South Africa)

Giraut, F. & Antheaume B. (2012). “Toponymy of power, power of toponymy? Colonial and contemporary Togolese place renaming”. In 5thTrend in Toponymy conference. Bern (Switzerland). (2 ; 4) (Togo ; Lomé ; Badou ; Litimé)

Giraut, F. (1999). Retour du refoulé et effet chef-lieu. Analyse d’une refonte politico-administrative virtuelle au Niger. Paris, Prodig. (3) (Niger)

Goerg, O. (2006), “Domination coloniale, construction de « la ville » en Afrique et dénomination“. Afrique & histoire 5(1), 15-45. (2) (Afrique francophone)

Goodrich, A. & P. Bombardella (2012). “Street name-changes, abjection and private toponymy in Potchefstroom, South Africa”. Anthropology Southern Africa, 35(1&2), 20-30. (2 ; 4) (Potchefstroom ; South Africa)

Gouffé, C. (1967). “Problèmes de toponymie haoussa : les noms de villages de la région de Maradi (République du Niger).Revue internationale d’onomastique 19(2): 95-127. (4) (Niger; Haoussa)

Gumbo, B. G., N. Ndana and A. Chebanne (2021). “‘Parakarungu chishovoonzi’: The Politics of Toponymy in the Chobe District, Botswana.Botswana Notes and Records 53: 90-102. (4) (Botswana ; Chobe)

Guyot, S. & C. Seethal (2007). “Identity of Place, Places of Identities: Change of Place Names in Post-Apartheid South Africa”. South African Geographical Journal, 89, 55-63. (2 ; 4) (South Africa)

Guillorel, H. (2012). “Hydronymie et politique”. Droit et politique, 161-180. (4) (South Africa)

Hair, P. E. H. (1966). “The spelling and connotation of the toponym Sierra Leone since 1461.” Sierra Leone studies (18): 43-58. (4) (Siera Leone)

Hang’ombe, K., E. Chabata and Z. Mamvura (2020). “School Names in Selected Districts in Southern Province of Zambia: A Critical Toponymies Perspective.” International Journal of Language and Linguistics 8(3): 88-99. (2 ; 3; 4) (Zambia)

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